Apr 29 2013

Handling Configuration Changes with Fragments

This post addresses a common question that is frequently asked on StackOverflow:

What is the best way to retain active objects—such as running Threads, Sockets, and AsyncTasks—across device configuration changes?

To answer this question, we will first discuss some of the common difficulties developers face when using long-running background tasks in conjunction with the Activity lifecycle. Then, we will describe the flaws of two common approaches to solving the problem. Finally, we will conclude with sample code illustrating the recommended solution, which uses retained Fragments to achieve our goal.

Apr 15 2013

Activitys, Threads, & Memory Leaks

Note: the source code in this blog post is available on GitHub.

A common difficulty in Android programming is coordinating long-running tasks over the Activity lifecycle and avoiding the subtle memory leaks which might result. Consider the Activity code below, which starts and loops a new thread upon its creation:

 * Example illustrating how threads persist across configuration
 * changes (which cause the underlying Activity instance to be
 * destroyed). The Activity context also leaks because the thread
 * is instantiated as an anonymous class, which holds an implicit
 * reference to the outer Activity instance, therefore preventing
 * it from being garbage collected.
public class MainActivity extends Activity {

  protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {

  private void exampleOne() {
    new Thread() {
      public void run() {
        while (true) {
Jan 14 2013

How to Leak a Context: Handlers & Inner Classes

Consider the following code:

public class SampleActivity extends Activity {

  private final Handler mLeakyHandler = new Handler() {
    public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
      // ... 

While not readily obvious, this code can cause cause a massive memory leak. Android Lint will give the following warning:

In Android, Handler classes should be static or leaks might occur.

But where exactly is the leak and how might it happen? Let’s determine the source of the problem by first documenting what we know:

Jan 12 2013

Use Go to Implement your Android Backends

A couple weeks ago I wrote a library that simplifies the interaction between Go-based application servers and Google Cloud Messaging servers. I plan on covering GCM (both the application-side and server-side aspects) in more detail in a future blog post, but for now I will just leave a link to the library to encourage more people to write their GCM application servers using the Go Programming Language (Google App Engine, hint hint).

…but why Go?

I’m glad you asked. There are several reasons:

Jan 8 2013

Google Play Services: Setup & Verification

WARNING: Many of the APIs used in this code have been deprecated since I initially wrote this post. Check out the official documentation for the latest instructions.

One of the trickiest aspects of writing a robust web-based Android application is authentication, simply due to its asynchronous nature and the many edge cases that one must cover. Thankfully, the recently released Google Play Services API greatly simplifies the authentication process, providing developers with a consistent and safe way to grant and receive OAuth2 access tokens to Google services. Even so, there are still several cases that must be covered in order to provide the best possible user experience. A professionally built Android application should be able to react to even the most unlikely events, for example, if a previously logged in user uninstalls Google Play Services, or navigates to the system settings and clears the application’s data when the foreground Activity is in a paused state. This post focuses on how to make use of the Google Play Services library while still accounting for edge cases such as these.

+1 this blog!

Android Design Patterns is a website for developers who wish to better understand the Android application framework. The tutorials here emphasize proper code design and project maintainability.

Find a typo?

Submit a pull request! The code powering this site is open-source and available on GitHub. Corrections are appreciated and encouraged! Click here for instructions.

Apps by me

Shape Shifter simplifies the creation of AnimatedVectorDrawable path morphing animations. View on GitHub.
2048++ is hands down the cleanest, sleekest, most responsive 2048 app for Android!